Frequently Asked Questions About Nutrition
1. Do you recommend a vegetarian or a vegan diet?
2. I want to try a vegan diet. How should I start?
3. Is it healthy for children to be on a vegan diet?
4. How do I get protein on a vegan diet? Do I need to combine proteins?
5. How do I get enough calcium on a vegan diet? What about osteoporosis?
6. What’s wrong with drinking milk? Is organic milk better? Is soymilk a safer alternative? What about other dairy products?
7. Is it safe to eat soybeans and other soy foods?
8. What are the safest types of fish to eat? Aren’t fish the best source of omega-3 fatty acids?
9. What is the best way to get vitamin B12?
10. What’s the best diet for weight loss?
11. Are carbohydrates bad for you? Is it OK to eat carbohydrates if I am trying to lose weight?
12. Should I be on a gluten-free diet?
13. Is the Atkins diet healthy/safe? What about other low-carb diets?
14. Is it true that some foods are addictive?
15. Someone in my family was diagnosed with cancer: What dietary recommendations would you offer him or her?
16. Is it possible to lower blood pressure with diet? If so, how?
17. Are there natural approaches to menopause?
18. I have a question about the prescription drug my doctor gave me. Can you help?
19. Will you recommend a doctor?
Don’t see the question you want to ask? You may also want to consult www.NutritionMD.org, a PCRM website that provides information on the role good nutrition plays in overall health, as well as how it relates to the prevention and treatment of specific conditions.
Vegetarian diets, which contain no meat (beef, pork, poultry, or fish and shellfish), are naturally low in saturated fat, high in fiber, and full of vitamins, minerals, and cancer-fighting compounds. A multitude of scientific studies have shown that vegetarian diets have remarkable health benefits and can help prevent certain diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. We encourage vegetarian diets as a way of improving general health and preventing diet-related illnesses.
Vegan diets, which contain no animal products (meat, dairy, eggs, or other animal products), are even healthier than vegetarian diets. Vegan diets contain no cholesterol and even less fat, saturated fat, and calories than vegetarian diets because they exclude dairy and eggs. Scientific research shows that health benefits increase as the amount of food from animal sources in the diet decreases, making vegan diets the healthiest overall.
Learn more about the benefits of vegetarian and vegan diets.
If a plant-based diet is new to you, you’ll be pleased to discover a wonderful additional benefit to vegan nutrition: It’s a fun way to explore delicious new foods. Start by checking out our Vegetarian Starter Kit, which explains the New Four Food Groups and offers useful tips, the “whys” and “hows” of a healthier diet, and easy-to-make recipes. To order a Vegetarian Starter Kit, please visit PCRM's literature store. Want more recipes? Go to www.NutritionMD.org. Three times a year, PCRM hosts a free, online program that walks you through how to adopt a vegan diet for three weeks. We provide menus, celebrity tips, nutrition information, and so much more. Register for the next program at 21DayKickstart.org.
A well-balanced vegan diet is safe and healthy for any stage of life, including infancy, childhood, adolescence, and during pregnancy. Plant-based diets can easily provide all essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals that growing children and mothers-to-be need. Simply have a variety of whole grains, beans, vegetables, and fruits, and be sure to include a daily source of vitamin B12, such as any common multiple vitamin. Plant-based diets have many important health advantages: Vegans enjoy a reduced risk of heart disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer. Since eating habits are established in early childhood, choosing a vegan diet can give your child the opportunity to enjoy a variety of nutritious foods—and to carry those healthy eating habits into adulthood. Learn more about vegan nutrition for children. Learn more about building strong bones in children. Read more about our book Healthy Eating for Life for Children.
Protein is an important nutrient required for the building, maintenance, and repair of tissues in the body. It was once thought that various plant foods had to be eaten together to get their full protein value; this practice was known as “protein combining” or “protein complementing.” We now know that intentional combining is not necessary. As long as the diet contains a variety of grains, legumes, and vegetables, protein needs are easily met. Especially protein-rich vegan foods include soy-based products like tofu, tempeh (a fermented soybean product), seitan (a meat substitute made from a wheat protein called gluten), black beans, lentils, chickpeas, grains such as quinoa and bulgur, and whole-wheat bread. Learn more about getting protein on a vegan diet.
By eating calcium-rich vegan foods, including leafy green vegetables such as broccoli and kale, white beans, fortified soymilks and juices, and a variety of fruits and vegetables, you can obtain all the calcium your body needs. But keeping your bones strong and avoiding osteoporosis depends on more than calcium intake—you also need to keep calcium in your bones. Exercise and vitamin D help keep the calcium in your bones, while animal protein, excess salt and caffeine, and tobacco can cause calcium loss. Learn how to prevent and reverse osteoporosis. Learn more about getting calcium on a vegan diet.
Milk contains animal fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol, and diets high in these substances increase the risk of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Other dairy products, such as cheese, yogurt, butter, and ice cream, also contribute significant amounts of cholesterol and fat to the diet. Even low-fat and fat-free milk and dairy products carry health risks because of cholesterol. In addition, natural and artificial hormones are present in all types of milk and dairy products, regardless of fat. Organic milk may not contain the pesticides and antibiotics that nonorganic milk contains, but it is still high in fat and cholesterol. Organic cow’s milk, which does not contain artificial hormones, does contain naturally occurring hormones. The combination of nutrients found in both organic and nonorganic cow’s milk increases our own production of some types of hormones. These hormones have been shown to increase the risk of some forms of cancer. Here are eight great health reasons to eliminate milk, cheese, and other dairy products from your diet. Soymilk and other nondairy beverages, such as rice and nut milks, are healthy alternatives to cow’s milk. These beverages come in different flavors, and many of them are fortified with calcium and vitamin D.
Recently, questions have been raised about the possible health risks of soy consumption, but the overwhelming majority of studies on soy have shown positive health effects with no adverse effects. Eating soy in moderation is appropriate for a healthy diet. There have been concerns about processed soy products, such as “mock meats,” but moderate intakes of these foods are not known to cause health problems. Some soy products are high in sodium and contain a higher-than-healthy level of fat, so be sure to check the labels and choose the healthier versions. Nonetheless, these foods are much healthier than the animal-derived foods they are intended to replace. If you do choose to avoid soy, you will find it can be easily replaced with other foods. Lentils, beans, and other legumes are a hearty and delicious source of plant-based protein and other nutrients. They are also the richest source of dietary fiber. Learn more about soy.
PCRM does not recommend eating any fish or shellfish because they can contain unsafe levels of contaminants and are often high in mercury and other environmental toxins that have no place in a healthy diet. Fish also contain no fiber and are high in animal protein, and often, in saturated fat and cholesterol.
Read our report on fish and shellfish safety.
The most nutritious sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are plant-based foods, including green leafy vegetables, legumes, wheat germ, soybeans, and ground flaxseeds. We do not recommend fish or fish oil as a healthy source of essential fatty acids. By getting omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and protein from plant-based foods, you can avoid the health risks associated with fish consumption.
Learn more about essential fatty acids.
Individuals following a vegan diet can readily meet their vitamin B12 with a common daily multiple vitamin or fortified foods, such as vitamin B12-fortified breakfast cereals, soymilk, meat analogues, and nutritional yeast.
Learn more about vitamin B12.
Both short-term and long-term, the most effective weight loss comes from avoiding animal products and keeping fats, vegetable oils, and highly processed foods to a minimum. In addition, it helps to keep the natural fiber in the foods you eat. This means eating whole-grain breads instead of white bread, brown rice instead of white rice, and plenty of fruits, vegetables, and legumes (beans, peas, and lentils). And don’t forget the importance of physical activity for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.
Learn more about healthy weight loss.
Learn more about healthy weight management.
Carbohydrate-rich foods help with permanent weight control because they contain less than half the calories of fat, which means that replacing fatty foods with complex carbohydrates automatically cuts calories.
It’s important to remember to eat healthful carbohydrates, such as whole grains, pasta, brown rice, and sweet potatoes. Processed carbohydrates, such as white bread and white rice, are not as healthful because they have lost much of their fiber and other nutrients. Read our report about health risks associated with high-fat, high-protein, carbohydrate-restricted diets.
For most Americans gluten is not an issue, but it can be a serious problem for the 1 percent of the population with celiac disease (gluten intolerance). Sometimes individuals may not have celiac disease but can have a sensitivity to gluten. Gluten sensitivities affect roughly 6 percent of Americans and can be managed by a gluten-free diet. However, if you suspect you are sensitive to gluten, see your doctor before going on a gluten-free diet. Varying the grains in your diet—not relying on just gluten-containing grains like wheat, barley, and rye—is a viable solution.
The most important action is to get a proper diagnosis from your doctor. Some of the most common symptoms are not exclusive to celiac disease or gluten sensitivity. Here are a few examples of symptoms to keep in mind: diarrhea, unexpected weight loss, vomiting, anemia, abdominal pain and distention, fatigue, joint pain, foggy mind, and tingling of the extremities. If any of these symptoms persist, it’s best to seek medical attention.
The Atkins diet and other low-carb fad diets, which are high in fat and protein and severely restrict carbohydrates, are not healthy approaches to losing weight. High-fat, high-protein diets are associated with many health risks, ranging from mild (constipation, headache, and bad breath) to significant (impaired kidney function, osteoporosis, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer).
The American Heart Association, the American Dietetic Association, and the American Kidney Fund have all published statements warning about the various dangers associated with low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets.
Learn more about the Atkins Diet.
Read our report about health risks associated with high-fat, high-protein, carbohydrate-restricted diets.
Studies suggest that cheese, chocolate, sugar, and meat all spark the release of opiate-like substances that trigger the brain’s pleasure center and seduce us into eating them again and again. These foods stimulate the same opiate receptors in your brain as heroin or morphine, but to a much lesser degree. In research studies, drugs used to block the effects of heroin and morphine can also reduce or end the appeal of these four foods. Luckily, there are many healthy dietary and lifestyle changes you can make to break food addictions.
Read more about addictive foods.
Read more about Dr. Neal Barnard’s book Breaking the Food Seduction.
First of all, be sure to get appropriate medical care and to use a healthy diet in addition to, not instead of, medical care. That said, scientific studies have shown that a low-fat, vegetarian or vegan diet can help in cancer prevention and survival. PCRM recommends replacing meat, dairy products, and other animal products with healthful, low-fat meals rich in whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. These foods are rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and cancer-fighting compounds. And they do not contain the high amounts of fat and cholesterol found in meat and other animal products. During medical treatment for cancer, your family member should consult his or her medical care team for any specific dietary recommendations related to the type of cancer or treatment.
Learn more about foods for cancer prevention.
Read our Cancer Survivor’s Guide, a useful guide to eating right for cancer prevention and survival.
For more information on cancer and diet, please go to The Cancer Project website.
Changing the way you eat can often lower your blood pressure and reduce or eliminate the need for medication. You can also lower your blood pressure by losing weight, limiting alcohol, avoiding tobacco, and becoming physically active. People who follow vegetarian and vegan diets typically have lower blood pressure.
If you have high blood pressure, you should consult your physician.
Learn more about diet and blood pressure.
Women can make many dietary and lifestyle changes to ease the pain and discomfort of menopause without the side effects of estrogen. For example, switching to a vegan diet is better for your heart and bones than estrogen prescriptions. Learn more about a natural approach to menopause.
PCRM's focus is preventive medicine, especially good nutrition. We do not offer medical advice. If you have a question about your health or prescription medications, please consult your personal physician.
PCRM is unable to give personalized medical or nutrition advice. We suggest that you select the best doctor you can find and that your doctor provide you the very best information about your diagnosis and possible treatments. You will generally not need to rely on a physician to provide nutritional information. That will come from a good registered dietitian or other nutrition counselor. As you plan to modify your diet your doctor should work with you, tracking your progress and modifying your medications along the way if need be. For this reason, PCRM does not maintain a referral list. If you are dealing with a particularly difficult medical problem, please do not hesitate to seek a second opinion or to consult the relevant department of a major teaching hospital in your community. We have put many resources into putting valuable and practical nutrition information in our books, DVD’s, and websites: General health: Visit PCRM.org/Health for frequently asked questions, as well as downloadable fact sheets on many topics. Cancer: Visit CancerProject.org where The Cancer Survivor’s Guide can be downloaded for free or locate one of our Food for Life classes in your area. Diabetes: Visit PCRM.org/Diabetes, read Dr. Neal Barnard’s Program for Reversing Diabetes, or watch the DVD A New Approach to Nutrition for Diabetes.
We do not operate a physician referral system. If seeking a dietitian, www.EatRight.org provides a directory. Also, you may want to consider seeking out a local vegetarian or vegan group that may have some connections to like-minded physicians in your area.