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November 13, 2017   other

 

Physicians Committee Medical research program director Ann Lam, PhD, with award winners Dr. Francesca Pistollato and Dr. Lena Smirnova, and Green Neuroscience Laboratory director Elan Ohayon, PhD.

Physicians Committee Medical research program director Ann Lam, PhD, with award winners Dr. Francesca Pistollato and Dr. Lena Smirnova, and Green Neuroscience Laboratory director Elan Ohayon, PhD. 

For the second year in a row, the Physicians Committee is partnering with the Green Neuroscience Laboratory to present the Green and Open Neuroscience Hero Awards for outstanding contributions to human-relevant research. This round of awards will be given at the 3rd Annual Green and Open Neuroscience Symposium & Soiree Nov. 13, 2017 in Washington, D.C. The free and public event is held as a satellite to the annual Society for Neuroscience meeting, the world’s largest annual meeting of neuroscientists, and will inform scientists about the promise of neuroscience research conducted without animals.

This year, two awardees are being recognized for their contributions. Awardee Dr. Lena Smirnova, research associate at Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, works to develop human “mini-brain” 3-dimensional organoids and other cell models to study the impact of environmental chemicals on brain function. The second recipient, Dr. Francesca Pistollato, research scientist at the European Commission Joint Research Center, is acknowledged for her work on human-based science, particularly with human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) in the area of Alzheimer’s disease.

The Green and Open Neuroscience Hero Award is given to scientists, educators, policymakers, or advocates who help improve our understanding of the brain and health through research and perspectives that strengthen ethics, open science, the environment, education, arts and protection of neurodiversity (See also: greenneuro.org/principles). These heroes exemplify how science can be dramatically advanced while maintaining the highest standards of responsible science.

Through presentations, discussions, and music, the evening soiree is both a celebration and an opportunity to consider potential collaborations and the necessary steps that need to be taken in neuroscience in order to promote groundbreaking, humane research in the 21st century.

Last year’s winners include Dr. Jacopo Annese of the Brain Observatory, for his work to create a high-resolution human brain atlas to humanize the understanding of the brain, and Dr. Stacey Lopresti-Goodman of Marymount University, for her groundbreaking research on animal cognition and outstanding contributions to forwarding ethical science education.

The event is open to the public, with an optional registration here.

November 11, 2017   animal testing

 

Awardees are given a hand-made hare statue to signify the prize's emphasis on "fighting animal testing". Pictured are Kristie Sullivan, MPH, Physicians Committee's vice president for research policy, Sara Amundsen, Humane Society Legislative Fund, and Catherine Willett, PhD, Humane Society of the United States.

We are excited to announce that, together with our partners, the Physicians Committee has won the Lush Lobbying Prize, which is awarded each year to organizations or individuals “pushing for change, focusing on policy interventions promoting the use of alternatives.” This award acknowledges our work with the Humane Society of the United States and the Humane Society Legislative Fund on the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety Act for the 21st Century. This bill, which was enacted into law in June 2016, contains the first ever national United States requirement for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and chemical companies to consider and use alternatives to animals in chemical testing. The EPA is also required to create a strategic plan to replace and reduce animal tests, provide incentives to use non-animal alternatives, and report regularly to Congress on its progress.

Eighteen winners from all over the world are being honored for their contributions to end animal testing in science, public awareness, training, and lobbying at an awards gala in London, the evening of Friday, Nov. 10. The lobbying award prize totals 50,000 British pounds and will be shared among the three organizations.

The Lautenberg Act signals a new direction in chemical assessment, in which human-relevant test methods and approaches are required to be used, developed, and promoted by the EPA and any entities providing chemical toxicity data to the EPA. By requiring the EPA to replace and reduce the use of animals in chemical testing, create a strategic plan to implement nonanimal methods into their chemical assessment practices, and report to congress on its progress every five years, it represents the beginning of the end of animals killed in toxicity testing.

Kristie Sullivan speaks at Friday's awards ceremony in London.

Thank you to the Lush Prize for recognizing this achievement.

November 8, 2017   animal testing

 

Physicians Committee Scientists Provide Expert Advice on Replacing Animal Tests

“Proper planning prevents poor performance.” It’s a timeless quote used to inspire people to apply adequate thought prior to any action in which great results are expected. U.S. governmental agencies are making plans to move away from animal testing to what many are now calling “new approach methodologies”—a catch-all term referring to nonanimal toxicity test methods. Physicians Committee toxicologists Esther Haugabrooks, Ph.D., and Kristie Sullivan, M.P.H., capitalized on the opportunity to aid in the proper development of this plan by providing advice to regulators and other government scientists at the Scientific Advisory Committee for Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)’s annual meeting.

SACATM is a federally chartered advisory committee for the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), and the Directors of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and NTP. This committee and its advisee agencies are the hub of government efforts to replace animals in toxicology.

The U.S. government has finally begun to put serious resources toward replacing animals in chemical, pharmaceutical, and other product testing. To properly plan these investments, NICEATM is creating a U.S. Strategic Roadmap: New Approaches to Evaluate the Safety of Chemicals and Medical Products, which ICCVAM has been developing since earlier this year. The roadmap is centered on three main goals:

  1. Encourage the adoption and use of new nonanimal methods and approaches by federal agencies and regulated industries;
  2. Foster the use of efficient, flexible, and robust practices to establish confidence in these new methods; and
  3. Connect end-users with the developers of nonanimal methodologies.

Other updates shared at the meeting and further indication of the resources available to reduce the use of animals in safety testing include EPA’s progress in using high-throughput nonanimal methods to quickly screen a large number of chemicals for safety and its very own strategic plan on replacing animal tests under the Lautenberg Chemical Safety Act.

Physicians Committee toxicologists gave several technical comments during the meeting. We commended the work of NICETAM in leading U.S. agencies towards the common goal of replacing animals, and for the ambitious, specific plans outlined to achieve this goal.

We encouraged ICCVAM member agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration, to be more aggressive in implementing and requiring industry to use such technologies especially for the cases where nonanimal alternatives are already available.

And we suggested in order to make faster progress, the United States needs to share its technological developments with agencies in other countries, and that chemical and pharmaceutical companies should do its part to share data and fund validation of nonanimal methods. Furthermore, the Physicians Committee and other organizations are providing opportunities for training that regulators can leverage to continue to increase the use and acceptance of nonanimal methods.

Kristie Sullivan, M.P.H.
Kristie Sullivan, M.P.H., Physicians Committee toxicologist and vice president of research policy, providing comments at SACATM.

For more information on the SACATM meeting, click here.

Later that week, the American Society for Cellular and Computational Toxicology (ASCCT), a scientific society co-founded by the Physicians Committee, held its 6th annual meeting in the Washington, D.C., metro area. ASCCT is a rapidly growing society that supports toxicologists working to develop nonanimal toxicology approaches by 1) providing opportunities to communicate and collaborate with each other and with regulatory authorities, 2) facilitating mentorship and training opportunities for young toxicologists, and 3) highlighting new toxicology approaches that do not use animals.

ASCCT organizers took advantage of the themes presented at the SACATM meeting to delve deeper into the science and policy behind the progress reported by government agencies. During the two-day ASCCT meeting attendees could view posters and attend session with presentations from EPA regulators and leading scientists from industry and nonprofit organizations.

The first day, tandem presentations by Anna Lowit of the EPA and Dan Wilson of Dow Chemical Company focused on stakeholder efforts to replace the EPA six-pack—a battery of animal intensive tests to determine acute systemic toxicity for (1) oral, (2) dermal, (3) inhalation routes of exposure, (4) skin corrosion and irritation, (5) eye corrosion and irritation, and (6) skin sensitization—with alternative approaches. Several shorter presentations highlighted the exciting scientific work making it possible to replace these tests.

The second day focused on the EPA’s responsibility to reduce and replace animals under the Lautenberg Act, with presentations and a panel discussion, moderated by the Physicians Committee’s Kristie Sullivan, again focusing on the scientific and policy needs to achieve this objective.

The Physicians Committee gave two poster presentations and one oral presentation. Elizabeth Baker, Esq., senior policy specialist, presented her work on Preclinical Innovation and Patient Safety: A Collaborative Approach to Supporting Innovative Science and Replacing Preclinical Animal Tests  and Esther Haugabrooks, Ph.D., presented a survey of global testing requirements titled Understanding Global Acute System Toxicity Testing Requirements as a Framework for Rapid and Harmonized Acceptance of Alternative Approaches .  Dr. Haugabrooks also presented an oral presentation outlining recommendations for the EPA strategic plan.

Dr. Haugabrooks, Physicians Committee toxicologist Esther Haugabrooks, Ph.D., Physicians Committee toxicologist, giving a presentation entitled the ‘Vision for U.S. Strategic Plan to Implement Alternative Toxicology Testing’ at the ASCCT meeting.

Baker by her poster at ASCCT.

Elizabeth Baker, Esq., senior policy specialist, by her poster at ASCCT.

For a full list of the ASCCT presentations, click here.

It is evident from the scientific presentations and discussions at the ASCCT meeting that the science of new approach methodologies has surpassed the archaic use of animals to predict human safety, and that we are already seeing the legislative mandates in the Lautenberg Act inspiring more scientific progress.

Proper preparation through scientific advances will make it possible to shift from traditional toxicology testing to alternative, nonanimal methods. Some of these methods, as highlighted at SACATM and ASCCT, are already being used within U.S. regulatory agencies. However, with the development of ICCVAM’s strategic roadmap, the EPA’s strategic plan to promote and develop alternative methods, and the continual efforts nongovernmental organizations like the Physicians Committee, a broader acceptance of nonanimal approaches within regulatory agencies is on the rise.

The Physicians Committee is looking for two spring semester interns to work on our programs promoting the replacement of animals in testing, research, and medical education with human-relevant methods. Apply today!

October 5, 2017   organ on a chip

 

organs on chips

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently awarded 13 investigators around the country two-year grants totaling about $15 million per year to further develop tissue chips to model certain human diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, flu infection, neurodegenerative diseases, heart conditions, and even rare genetic disorders. This Tissue Chip for Disease Modeling and Efficacy Testing initiative serves as the first phase of a five-year program to support new research tools for modeling human diseases in the laboratory and testing the effectiveness of new therapies. This exciting announcement is a sign of dramatic change in the way we study human diseases, and a promising sign of continued progress.

 

These tissue chips or organs-on-chips are miniature platforms support living cells or tissues in a 3-D architecture to mimic the complex biological interconnections and interactions within human organs or systems. They promise to yield more human-relevant results while reducing and replacing the use of animals in research and toxicological testing. They may also be utilized one day to personalize medicine by allowing an individual patient’s responses to drugs to be tested prior to administration. The goals of the Tissue Chip for Disease Modeling and Efficacy Testing initiative include:

  • Developing tissue chips as human-relevant disease models using cells derived from humans, including stem cells and primary human tissues
  • Determining the disease relevance of these models by verifying key experimental features in pilot tests.
  • Testing the ability of these models to measure the effectiveness of candidate drugs

Upon successful completion of the first phase, the awarded investigators will partner with pharmaceutical companies to develop a plan to use these models for testing the safety and efficacy of candidate drugs.

The Tissue Chip for Disease Modeling and Efficacy Testing initiative is part of a continuing effort by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) at the NIH to support this promising area of research. In 2012, NCATS partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to launch the Tissue Chip for Drug Screening program to develop tissue chips to mimic human organ systems and to integrate them to form a human body-on-a-chip. Over the last five years, NIH and DARPA awarded about $70 million of research funding to support this program.

Up to 95 percent of drug candidates fail in human clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or safety. Having better predictive models for testing candidate drugs is not only essential for avoiding major drug failures or disasters in humans but also to avoid missing out on potentially helpful treatment for humans that have been erroneously labeled as ineffective or toxic in animal tests. Given that animal experiments are unreliable predictors of drug responses in humans, developing tissue chips as human-relevant models for drug testing is essential to replacing the costly and unreliable animal tests.  "The goal is for these tissue chips to provide more accurate platforms to understand diseases, and to be more predictive of the human response to drugs than current research models, thereby improving the success rate of candidate drugs in human clinical trials," said NCATS director Christopher P. Austin, M.D.

Unfortunately, this timely announcement comes the same month that the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) announced available grants for developing “animals-on-chips.” They’re funding work to create miniature dog, rat, or monkey organs because drugs are currently tested in these animals, and they hope to compare the results of the animal-organs-on-chips to results from animal tests. This approach is a distraction from what we really need, and what our government should be funding—models that give us information on how humans react to drugs. The $2 million they are offering would be better spent on human cell and tissue models.

September 21, 2017   animal testing, animals in education

 

dog emotion studies

When Dr. Gregory Berns' favorite dog Newton, a 14-year-old pug, died, Berns found himself asking whether Newton had loved him the same way he loved Newton. That was the beginning of a unique research endeavor for the Emory University Distinguished Professor of Neuroeconomics, one in which Callie, another of his rescued dogs, has played a trailblazing role. A recent interview psychologist Marc Bekoff, Ph.D., conducted with Dr. Berns reveals the potentially game-changing results.

What Dr. Berns' research shows is that noninvasive, nonradioactive, and (importantly) noncoercive MRI brain scans can teach us much about how dogs or other nonhumans receive and process information and experiences. In many instances, canine responses involve the same brain regions that are activated by similar human experiences, such as pleasure from a familiar object, sound, or smell. But these responses and brain activation patterns differ among dogs, just as they differ among humans.

By performing functional MRI scans on community-living dogs who willingly participate, Dr. Berns has begun to localize brain responses to hand signals, smells, and other exposures. For example, the caudate nucleus in dogs and humans is activated by the anticipation and perception of pleasure, whether a favorite dog toy or a photo of a beloved family member. Dr. Berns has provided further confirmation that the emotional lives of dogs are rich in much the same ways that human lives are rich. Our canine friends and their nonhuman brethren are not senseless beasts, no matter what Claude Bernard and René Descartes believed in less enlightened eras.

One of Dr. Berns' preliminary findings is that the canine caudate nucleus—the pleasure center—is activated by the return of the dog's guardian from a brief absence. So do dogs love us, miss us when we are gone, and anticipate our return? Animal lovers know the answers intuitively, but science has not made all the connections. Dr. Berns' research is a step in that direction.

What is clear are the bonds and shared emotions that have made Sparky man's longest-tenured companion. The studies conducted by Gregory Berns are confirming what may seem obvious to people who share their lives with dogs, cats, and other companions, and it deconstructs the claim of animal researchers that it is ethical and moral to experiment on nonhumans because they don't experience life as we do. Dr. Berns' research and decades of unproductive animal research to study human diseases or develop drugs tell us just the opposite: Our nonhuman cohabitants of Earth differ from us in ways that invalidate translation of animal research to humans, but they share with us the characteristics of fear, pain, suffering, (and yes, love) and other emotional and physical attributes that make experimenting on them immensely cruel.

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