|NEWS RELEASE||March 4, 2014|
Vegetarian Diets Lower Blood Pressure
JAMA meta-analysis shows link between diet, hypertension
- A meta-analysis of 21,604 people from 32 observational studies and 311 people from seven clinical trials shows a strong association between vegetarian diets and low blood pressure.
- In observational studies, vegetarian diets are associated with blood pressure readings that are, on average, 7 mm Hg and 5 mm Hg lower for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively.
- The blood pressure reduction is independent of salt intake, overweight, and exercise levels.
- A reduction of 5 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure leads to a 7 percent reduced risk of all-cause mortality, a 9 percent reduced risk of heart disease, and a 14 percent reduced risk of stroke.
- Study participants who follow a vegetarian diet typically have higher fiber and potassium intakes, lower fat intakes, lower blood viscosity, and a lower BMI, compared to study participants who follow an omnivorous diet.
WASHINGTON, Feb. 24, 2014 —Vegetarian diets reduce the risk of hypertension, according to new research published today in JAMA Internal Medicine by Physicians Committee president Neal Barnard, M.D., and researcher Yoko Yokoyama, Ph.D., M.P.H.
The meta-analysis compares blood pressure from more than 21,000 people around the world and finds study participants who follow a vegetarian diet have a systolic blood pressure about 7 mm Hg lower and diastolic blood pressure 5 mm Hg lower than study participants who consume an omnivorous diet.
“Instead of readjusting the definition for hypertension, as was done in the recent guideline revision, let’s write prescriptions for plant-based foods,” says Dr. Barnard. “Compared to antihypertensive drugs, a diet change brings only desirable “side effects,” including healthy weight loss and improved cholesterol, along with the lower blood pressure.”
The meta-analysis report also points out that:
- Obesity, sodium, and alcohol consumption increase blood pressure and risk for hypertension.
- Potassium intake and physical activity correlate directly with lower blood pressure.
- Unsaturated fat, protein, magnesium, and dietary fiber may reduce risk for hypertension.
- Hypertensive study participants who combine antihypertensive medications with a plant-based diet lower blood pressure by an average of 5/2 mm Hg in just six weeks.
The meta-analysis shows a foundation of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes helps study participants keep blood pressure in a healthful range of less than 120/80 mm Hg. For individuals between 40 and 70 years, a 20 mm Hg increase in systolic BP, starting at just 125/75 mm Hg, doubles the risk for heart disease. For comparison, smoking has a similar effect. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports more than 67 million Americans, or one in three adults, have high blood pressure, a risk factor for heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease. The American Heart Association reports high blood pressure is up 27 percent in children and accounts for 350,000 preventable deaths each year.
Yoko Yokoyama, M.P.H., Ph.D., M.A., is a medical researcher at the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center and research fellow with the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (currently at Keio University). Dr. Yokoyama earned a Ph.D. in public health at the Kyoto University School of Public Health. As an author of several published studies and medical textbooks, Dr. Yokoyama continues to influence advancements in clinical and nutritional epidemiology, medical education, and behavioral science. Learn more about Dr. Yokoyama’s research at Research Map.
Neal Barnard, M.D., is president of the Physicians Committee and an adjunct professor of medicine at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences. Founded in 1985, the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a nonprofit organization with more than 10,000 doctor members that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. View Dr. Barnard’s published studies at NealBarnard.org.
Follow Dr. Barnard on Twitter:@DrNealBarnard