Antibiotic Resistance from Animal Agriculture: Foodborne Illness and Medical Care
A Report from the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
1. Investigation Update: Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104 (STEC O104:H4) Infections Associated with Travel to Germany. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services; July 8, 2011. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/2011/ecoliO104/index.html. Accessed September 8, 2011.
2. Food and Drug Administration. Bad Bugs, No Drugs As Antibiotic Discovery Stagnates...A Public Health Crisis Brews. Alexandria, VA: Infectious Diseases Society of America; July 2004.
3. Investigation Update: Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Heidelberg Infections Linked to Turkey. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services; August 18, 2011. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/heidelberg/081811/index.html. Accessed September 8, 2011.
4. Food and Drug Administration. The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals. Rockville, MD; US Dept of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine: June 28, 2010.
5. Food and Drug Administration. 2009 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals. Rockville, MD: Center for Veterinary Medicine; December 9, 2010.
6. West BM, Liggit P, Clemans DL, Francoeur SN. Antibiotic resistance, gene transfer, and water quality patterns observed in waterways near CAFO farms and wastewater treatment facilities. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2009;217:473-489.
7. Smith TC, Male MJ, Harper AL, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain ST398 is present in midwestern US swine and swine workers. PLoS One. 2009;4(1):e4258.
8. Huijsdens XW, van Dijke BJ, Spalburg E, et al. Community-acquired MRSA and pig-farming. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2006;5:26.
9. Guardabassi L, Stegger M, Skov R. Retrospective detection of methicillin resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Danish slaughter pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2007;122(3-4):384-386.
10. Khanna T, Friendship R, Dewey C, Weese JS. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers. Vet Microbiol. 2008;128(3-4):298-303.
11. DeWaal CS, Roberts C, Catella C. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens: Evidence of the Need for a Risk Management Strategy. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, January 25, 2011.
12. Price LB, Graham JP, Lackey LG, Roess A, Vailes R, Silbergeld E. Elevated risk of carrying gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli among US poultry workers. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115(12):1738-1742.
13. Chambers HF. The Changing Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus? Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):178-182.
14. Klein E, Smith DL, Laxminarayan R. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in outpatients, United States, 1999–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(12):1925-1930.
15. DeLaney JA, Schneider-Linder V, Brassard P, Suissa S. Mortality after infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) diagnosed in the community. BMC Med. 2008;6:2.
16. Klevens RM, Morrison MA, Nadle J, et al. Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States. JAMA. 2007;298(15):1763-1771.
17. Davis SL, Perri MB, Donabedian SM, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45(6):1705-1711.
18. Moore CL, Osaki-Kiyan P, Perri M, et al. USA600 (ST45) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in urban Detroit. J Clin Microbiol. 2010; 48(6):2307-2310.
19. Roberts RR, Hota B, Ahmad I, et al. Hospital and societal costs of antimicrobial-resistant infections in a Chicago teaching hospital: implications for antibiotic stewardship. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(8):1175-84.
20. Harrison PF, Lederberg J, eds. Antimicrobial Resistance: Issues and Options Workshop report of National Academy 1998. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 1998.
21. European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and European Medicines Agency. The bacterial challenge: time to react. A call to narrow the gap between multidrug-resistant bacteria in the EU and the development of new antibacterial agents. Stockhold, Sweden; ECDC/EMEA: September 2009.
22. Kohanski MA, DePristo MA, Collins JJ. Sublethal antibiotic treatment leads to multidrug resistance via radical-induced mutagenesis. Mol Cell. 2010;37(3):311–320.
23. Food and Drug Administration. Antibiotic Resistance and the Use of Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture, Statement of Joshua M. Sharfstein, MD Principal Deputy Commissioner, Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Before the Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Energy and Commerce, US House of Representatives. US Dept of Health and Human Services; July 14, 2010.